Adrenaline is a hormone that has profound actions on the cardiovascular system and is also a mediator of the fight‐or‐flight response.During stressful situations, epinephrine (adrenaline), glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol play a role in blood sugar levels.

Stressful situations include infections, serious illness or significant emotional stress. When stressed, the body prepares itself by ensuring that enough sugar or energy is readily available. Insulin levels fall, glucagon and epinephrine (adrenaline) levels rise and more glucose is released from the liver.

At the same time, growth hormone and cortisol levels rise, which causes body tissues (muscle and fat) to be less sensitive to insulin. As a result, more glucose is available in the bloodstream.

Adrenaline, a hormone released by the adrenal glands, can affect blood concentrations of glucose. Secretion of adrenaline is controlled by parasympathetic neurons in the rostroventrolateral medulla, which is, in turn, under the control of central and/or peripheral glucose‐sensing neurons